Big Data

Big Data refers to humongous digital data which enables research and decision-support applications with extraordinary value.

The technological advancement and social indulgence of the information have changed to the fast generating data which has five attributes volume, velocity, variety, veracity, and value.

Big Data is massive and created from several fields in the engineering, namely; Sciences, Internet of Things and Businesses.

I am working on my thesis: you can view the outline here at BIG DATA MANAGEMENT, SECURITY & PRIVACY CHALLENGES.


Academic Integrity

Academic Integrity in Cultural Context

Pakistan is still working its way towards consolidating the establishment of Intellectual property rights. It is deeply saddening to realize that Pakistan is known to be the top manufacturer and exporter of pirated industry software, publications, and digital content. The violations in the IPR Laws are persistent in Pakistan and have caused severe financial losses in the international trade market as well. As a former resident of Pakistan, I can safely say that most people don’t value the intellectual rights of others. A good example is the popularity of the cable TV system in Pakistan. It has been there for over two decades now. You get a £20 per month connection from the cable company and enjoy the 24/7 full access to 100 plus local and international channels on the TV. If you compare the same scenario of TV channel subscription in the UK, we must pay the high prices to enjoy these facilities. Read more about the cultural differences in academic honesty.


Academic Skills

Graduate level students are expected to acquire academic skills that would enable them to study independently and productively. At the university level, students come from diverse backgrounds and culture, and for that reason, they will have a variety of skills differing from each other. Some skills would already be known to students while some they would have to inculcate to progress and learn successfully. Read more about Academic Skills!


Ruby: Comments

In Ruby we can add comments to our code in two ways

  1. Single line comments
  2. Multi-line comments

For single line comments, we use # before the comment to be added.

For eg: #this is a comment

For multi-line comment; we use =begin at the start and =end at the end.

For eg:


I want to add

multi line



Note: There should be no space between = and begin/end