Academic Skills

Graduate level students are expected to acquire academic skills that would enable them to study independently and productively. At the university level, students come from diverse backgrounds and culture, and for that reason, they will have a variety of skills differing from each other. Some skills would already be known to students while some they would have to inculcate to progress and learn successfully. Read more about Academic Skills!


Ruby: Comments

In Ruby we can add comments to our code in two ways

  1. Single line comments
  2. Multi-line comments

For single line comments, we use # before the comment to be added.

For eg: #this is a comment

For multi-line comment; we use =begin at the start and =end at the end.

For eg:


I want to add

multi line



Note: There should be no space between = and begin/end

Ruby: Methods

Everything in Ruby is an object and has specific built-in abilities knows as “methods”.

For eg strings have built-in methods that can tell you the length of the string, reverse it, capitalize it and much more.

.length method:

It returns the length of the string.

for eg:


Ruby will output =>> 6

.reverse method

This method reverse the string that we provide.

For eg:


Ruby will output => ahseyA

.upcase & .downcase

These two methods can be used to change the case of a string.

As the name suggests, .upcase would change the entire string to uppercase and .downcase would change the entire string to the lower case.

For eg:

puts “Ayesha”.downcase would give output =>> ayesha

puts “Ayesha”.upcase would give output =>> AYESHA

Ruby: Mathematics

There are 6 arithetic operators which we would discuss at this point

  1. Addition +
  2. Subtraction –
  3. Multiplication *
  4. Division /
  5. Exponentiation **
  6. Modulo %

All are self-explanatory but for the beginners: Exponentiation raises one number (the base) to the power of the other (the exponent).

For eg: 2 ** 3 is 8 [ Basically it means 2*2*2 ]

Coming to Modulus: it returns the remainder of division.

For eg: 17 % 5 would be 2


Ruby: Data types & Variables

Programming in Ruby

The benefits of using Ruby for web development:

  • High level language so its easy to understand
  • Interpreted
  • Object oriented
  • Easy to use

Starting with “how to code using Ruby”; for now we discuss only the 3 mainly used data types:

  1. Numbers
  2. Booleans
  3. Strings

Note: Do not use quotation marks ” ” for the boolean values otherwise Ruby will think it to be a string value.

Lets do a small exercise here that shows how to declare variables and assign them values.

my_number = 25

my_boolean = true

my_string= “Ruby”

Declaring variables in Ruby is quite simple. Just write the name and assign it a value using the = operator

For eg: Lets set a variable my_num to the value 150

To do so we simply do as follows: